8. The Three Phases of Teaching Reading
One of your tutoring responsibilities will be to help your student identify and learn a variety of reading strategies before, during and after reading, or BDA.

Shared by Alonzo Youn, DocStoc, Public Domain

Optional Reading: A checklist for reading purposes and BDA activities for each.

A. Before reading: The first phase

"Learners who read at the fourth-grade level and below need to be taught pre-reading strategies explicitly. For example, they should learn how to use pictures, section headings, and summaries to predict content and learn how to activate their prior knowledge by asking, 'What do I already know about this?'" (McShane, p. 75).

This video shows a before strategy: Making predictions

B. During reading: The second phase
Tutors can help their students check for understanding by teaching them to employ reading strategies as they are reading. Because poor readers have no idea that their tutors also employ similar reading strategies, it will be helpful to discuss these strategies as you use them.

Find the following strategies, except for DR-TA in McShane, Chapter 7, Comprehension-Strategy Instruction at http://www.famlit.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/adults-applyingresearch.pdf . Click on the live links to read about the reading strategies.
  • Thinking Aloud - click on link. (McShane, p. 80)  Think-alouds have been described as "eavesdropping on someone's thinking." With this strategy, teachers verbalize aloud while reading a selection orally. Their verbalizations include describing things they're doing as they read to monitor their comprehension. The purpose of the think-aloud strategy is to model for students how skilled readers construct meaning from a text.- Reading Rockets
  • Restating: You can teach learners to stop periodically (after each section, for example) and try to restate what's been read in their own words. If they have trouble with this, they know they're not getting it. (McShane, p. 81) 
  • Coding Text - click on link. (McShane, p. 81)  This is a strategy used to help students keep track of thinking while they are reading.
  • Asking Questions: Another way [students] can monitor their understanding is to ask themselves who, what, when, where, and why questions after each section or page. If they can't answer these questions they know to stop and reread. (Be aware that this strategy may work best with stories, news articles, and other narrative texts because they are likely to have all the "5 Ws" represented.) (McShane, p. 81) 
  • Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA): Curry School of Education handout, http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/reading/projects/garf/Kevin%27s%20handout%202.doc  In DR-TA, you will ask your student to stop reading a text along the way and ask comprehension questions - "Did anything change? Do you want to modify your predictions? Why? How do you think the story will continue? Did anything surprise you?" etc. etc.
Optional Video: Demonstrations in Think Alouds

C. After reading: The third phase
After reading, you will assist your student in identifying what she has learned and what she still needs to know. In addition to using graphic organizers, you will also help her develop the following skills:
  • Summarization - (click on link - title) (McShane, p.93) Summarizing is how we take larger selections of text and reduce them to their bare essentials: the gist, the key ideas, the main points that are worth noting and remembering. - Reading Quest 
  • How to Identify an Unstated Main Idea (click on link - title) (McShane, p. 94)  A paragraph is a group of sentences related to a particular topic, or central theme. Every paragraph has a key concept or main idea. The main idea is the most important piece of information the author wants you to know about the concept of that paragraph.- Cuesta College
  • Question Answering - (click on link - title) (McShane, p. 89)  An author often supports his or her main idea with key facts and examples that help make the overall meaning of the text clear. You might ask your student questions based on one of these facts or examples.- Strategies for answering reading questions
  • Question Generating (click on link - title) McShane, p. 90  Generating questions works hand-in-hand with making predictions. Good readers are  Generating  questions  works  hand-in-hand  with  making  predictions. Good  readers  are inquiring readers. They ask questions of themselves and the writer as they move through the text - Generating questions

Optional video: The Cloze Procedure

Helps students think about words in context of the entire sentence.

    A word about graphic organizers
    Graphic organizers are excellent tools for teaching your student before, during, and after reading strategies. Click on the link and scroll through the graphic organizers. Do any seem familiar? Graphic organizers appeal to visual learners and reinforce critical thinking skills. They are also an excellent resource for review and reflection before moving on to a new reading goal.

    Optional Video: Graphic Organizers in Identifying Important Events

    Optional reading: Story Structure, McShane, p. 83.
    An example of a graphic organizer we've used in this worshop is the learning styles graphic in the previous unit. Click here to see it.


    tutorgirl said...

    I had a little trouble understanding the concepts of K-W-L and Before-During and After. After reading this section and the related readings, I feel more familiar with these topics. I have never done very well with Graphic organizers, and have often had to have instruction to understand them. Obviously, I am not that type of learner!

    Biltz said...

    I like having examples of tools that can be used. Good information.

    lillian said...

    Good information

    Pat said...

    good material

    jack said...

    I liked the Network Tree under Graphic Organizers to find out what the student has learned and how the points relate.

    Ms. Ovette said...

    The "stop/start" approach is good. Helping the reader restate what he or she has understood so far is a confidence builder. It also helps the reader anticipate what may be coming next.

    Marian said...

    I realize how much experience I've had with graphic organizers in creating PowerPoint presentations and other business applications. An extremely useful tool.

    Lynn said...

    Done May 8, 2011

    neg said...

    Dicussing the reading has always been fun for me who knew it was a valid teaching tool.

    SNelson said...

    I believe coding and reading strategies will prove beneficial

    Danielle said...

    I have used frayer models and kwls for this purpose best.

    Carissa Priebe said...

    I like graphic organizers a lot, they are a wonderful way to make something make sense in ones mind

    Martha said...

    I can see how using the three phases of learning will enhance a student's attention to detail which will increase their comprehension and learning. The sample materials will be very useful tools as well.

    Megan N said...

    I like the tip to ask your learner what's going on in the story, that way you can make sure they are comprehending it!

    Kenneth Zen Bodhi said...

    Great material and one that really drives home the point.

    John Lynch said...


    domthom92090 said...

    After reading this, I just realized that I myself learn better, when I use a graphic organizer, or else everything gets jumbled up and I end up forgetting something. I like to have enough space and enough time to do what I need to do. It helps me to think easier and focus more. Hmmmm, we take this course to tutor others and we end up helping and learning more more about ourselves in the process...what a bonus!

    Locs of Patience said...

    I thought this was an insightful section because a lot of strategies I myself can incorporate in my reading. I especially appreciated the information on reading for different purposes. It will help me with my academic reading which can be arduous at times.

    Locs of Patience said...

    I thought this was an insightful section because a lot of strategies I myself can incorporate in my reading. I especially appreciated the information on reading for different purposes. It will help me with my academic reading which can be arduous at times.

    lisakay said...

    Thinking of reading as understanding ideas and not just sounding out words, reminds me to help students question and predict what they are reading.

    Wallace West said...

    Basically it word association and application, memorization. When we were kids we did this stuff without being aware, they were fun games tuning our minds. Once real life hit a lot of us brain dump too much going on and need the space or we just spaced out and forgot. How things apply to what you know and been through will help.

    Regina Cook said...

    Starting by assessing prior knowledge base lends to increasing motivation in the learner. If he or she is apprehensive toward learning, the probability is high that such apprehension can be attributed to their concern regarding what they don't know. By engaging them to become self-aware about what they DO know should naturally result in a confidence boost and thus, a motivational boost.

    The chart illustrating the three phases for teaching reading to adults is very useful.

    Finally, the graphic organizer assimilates concept mapping. I have used concept mapping in the past. The process is useful for illustrating abstract concepts and difficult theories. It is particularly beneficial for visual learners. I'm eager to utilize the graphic organizer then compare the two tools.

    Pamela Lee said...

    This strategy ensures success with a student. Breaking down readings into the three categories for discussion with the student stresses the importance of the strategy to the student and ensures the tutor knows if they are being successful before moving on.

    Penny Speidel said...

    I've found it to be extremely helpful to teach students to annotate DURING READING. I encourage students to read the paragraph, stop and ask what's the point of the paragraph, and then to write this annotation in the margin or on a post-it note. Annotation forces the student to "think" while reading, thus improving concentration and retention. Colorful post-it notes are especially helpful to the visual learners.